"Like the treatment and management of other chronic illnesses, the New Paradigm offers a system of care management for substance use disorders.The New Paradigm typically involves an initial assessment followed, when indicated,by formal episodes of treatment. A monitoring agreement is signed that is designed to help the individual achieve abstinence. Long-term monitoring of the individual, including drug and alcohol testing,is used to identify any use of alcohol or other drugs. When any substance use is detected or other failure of compliance with the monitoring agreement occurs, appropriate action is taken immediately to stop the use, in accordance with the agreement. The monitoring agreement provides leverage, or external motivation, to help the individual remain abstinent while changes in thinking and behaviors, or internal motivation, take place. In the New Paradigm, recovery—not relapse—is the expected outcome."